The dangers of pool and hot tub drains have been known for decades. When these drains do not meet reasonable standards, the suction set-up can pose considerable risk of danger to all those using the water. Young children are particularly at risk because of their unique physical vulnerabilities. Over the years, far too many children have been seriously injured and even killed as a result of poor safety protocols.
All those who own or operate spaces with pools and hot tubs must be aware of these injury risks. That includes spaces at waterparks, apartment complexes, hotels, private, and more. Unfortunately, time and time again those in charge of ensuring safety fail in their duty, leaving unsuspecting guests at risk of serious harm. This is always unacceptable, and it is critical for those responsible to be held accountable.
I have came across many drains over the years just merely cemented in place as there screws have been rusted in, this is not acceptable and new drains
or screws should have been fitted, doing this adds extra cost when the drain cover needs to be removed for maintenance and the added danger of the drain cover being stuck all the way around and not just been held in place by normally 2-4 screws which could be easily broken in an extreme emergency.
I know of a few companies that actually advertise that they will "cement them down" They have screws in for a reason, not just for fixing.
This is Extreme Bad Practice, and should be avoided.
POOL REQUIREMENTS (The Best Code Of Practice as it stands in UK & Europe) Full Download below
6.1 Water circulation
Pool water should circulate 24 hours a day. If the pool has a moveable floor or bulkhead (boom), the circulation system should ensure proper water distribution in all
6.1.1 Surface water should be removed from swimming pools (a deck-level system is best). Between 50 and 80% of the circulation flow should be removed as surface water.
6.1.2 Inlets and outlets, grilles and covers should be designed in accordance with BS EN 13451-3. They should be inspected visually every day and once a month subject to closer examination for obstruction, impact damage and vandalism and to make sure that they are correctly in place. If they are damaged or missing, swimming should be suspended immediately.
Examples of a dangerous drain:
184.108.40.206 Inlets: in water less than 800mm in depth and in sensitive areas (steps, teaching points, beside base inlets, etc.) the velocity of the water entering the pool should not exceed 0.5m/s. In other areas, the velocity of the water entering the pool should not exceed 2.0m/s. 220.127.116.11 Outlets can cause entrapment and therefore have the capacity for serious harm. PWTAG guidance is that all pools should be tested to show that outlets comply with BS EN 13451-3. New completed pools should have this certification when built. Where this is not the case, pool outlets should be tested by a competent authority to show that they comply.
18.104.22.168.1 Outlets should also be tested for hair entrapment. Annex C describes a test for hair entrapment.
22.214.171.124.2 Pool outlets should be designed and installed so as to reduce the potential for entrapment of the user. As a general requirement, water speed through the outlet grilles should be ≤0.5m/s.
126.96.36.199 Grilles in outlets and inlets should comply with the requirements of BS EN 13451-1 and have gaps no greater than 8mm to prevent entrapment hazards.
PWTAG CoP 1.13 PWTAG Code of Practice 23
188.8.131.52 All wall and floor outlets should be fitted with a sump to a design that accords with BS EN 13451-3. Additionally at least one of the following two requirements should be met.
184.108.40.206.1 Multiple suction outlet systems should be designed in such a way that:
• there are at least two functioning suction outlets per suction line
• the distance between the nearest points of the perimeters of the devices is ≥2m
• if any one of the suction outlets becomes blocked, the flow through the remaining suction outlet/s shall accommodate 100% of the flow rate
• it is not possible to isolate one of the outlet sump suction lines by means of a valve.
220.127.116.11.2 In the case of suction outlet systems on existing pools with only one grille, the grille should be designed in such a way that it cannot be blocked:
• one user cannot cover more than 50% of the opening
• raised grilles can be domed opposite to the flow direction, with prevalent peripheral suction; the height of the dome shall be at least 10% of the main dimension
• single grilles should have a grille area of ≥1m2.
PWTAG Code of Practice